Another conclusion: selling opium may not have been as profitable as one would think.
These steamers are big, handsome floating palaces worthy of the Hudson or Long Island Sound.Quantitative data on 19th century opium use in the U. However—if the Treasury Department’s statistics were accurate—, the percentage of white and black addicts had to be lower than among Chinese sojourner-immigrants.The problem is that we have no way of evaluating the Treasury Department’s statistics.Items from it are in the Chung Collection, the Museum of Vancouver, and the Chinese Pioneer Virtual Museum.On Nov 26 1893, the San Francisco Chronicle published a well-researched feature article on opium smugglers in British Columbia. Although by 1893, almost all imported raw opium entered Canada via Vancouver, most of it was immediately shipped over to Victoria for refining.Did it manage to collect duties on a large or small proportion of incoming raw opium?Customs officials were vigilant about the smuggling of refined opium, because when detected it yielded large bounties for offices and individuals.All of the wrapping papers bear stamped seals in red ink that carry the same text as the box labels, except that the contents are not described and, in the case of Guang An and Guang Heng, the store's products are stated to include brass.Box labels and wrappings both include the English word "China," showing that the stores were aiming partly at buyers in the U. where, since the passage of the Mc Kinley Tariff Act of 1891, all imports had to be marked with the name of the country of origin.It offers fine descriptions of opium smuggling from Canada into the U. After that it might be smuggled across the border in small sailboats, hidden on board larger steamers, carried overland through the "almost trackless pine forests of Northern Washington," or shipped further east via the Canadian Pacific Railroad, to be brought into the U. at many spots in North Dakota, Minnesota, and the areas south of Toronto and Montreal."When the smugglers in Victoria decide to run a cargo of 500 pounds of opium into the United States, they select a dark night with a good breeze blowing.They have previously ascertained by telegraph from confederates in Port Townsend just across the water, the whereabouts and probable intentions of the United States revenue cutter that patrols those waters.